John and Mary (King) Scudder, 17th Century Pioneers on Long Island and
Notable Pioneering Descendants Who Went West, the Family of Levi Stewart,
Founder of Kanab, Utah to His Great-grandson, Interior Secretary Stewart L. Udall

by Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian
© Scudder Association Foundation, 2021


Newton Long Island Map[1]


To continue the story of John and Mary (King) Scudder of Newtown, Long Island from our Spring 2021 journal issue,[2] articles in this Summer/Fall 2021 issue will share more about this couple’s pioneering activities and about some of their remarkable pioneering posterity who are not generally recognized as Scudders, due to their descent through a female line. This issue reveals a rich vein of Scudder descendants who illustrate what it means to pioneer. To pioneer is to be among the first to settle a new area or to be a person who is among the first to develop a new area of activity or knowledge.[3] Or, such as with a branch of Scudders surnamed Stewart and Udall, the term can refer to one who also initiates or advances a new political movement, a new social policy, or, who embraces and promotes a new religion. This issue will focus on a large branch of Scudder descendants from John2 and Mary Scudder’s line who descend through their daughter Elizabeth3 (Scudder) Alburtus who are highlighted in yellow in this diagram. This diagram also shows how this branch of the family’s surname evolved from Scudder to Stewart.

John and Mary Scudder Family Chart

Histories of John2 and Mary Scudder and their posterity suggest that many of them met these criteria to be called pioneers and that John2 and Mary’s pioneering traits seem to have been passed down for at least nine generations in this western branch of the Scudder family. Was it this pioneering characteristic forged early in John2 Scudder’s family that gave succeeding generations their courage and confidence to move to new frontiers to settle in wildernesses, or to tackle big or new projects with a focus to make improvements in their communities or the world? A passion to work tirelessly to make the world a better place, was a family characteristic and culture among their descendants in the Stewart and Udall families of Utah and Arizona. These people too were faith-driven and service-oriented like many of their American Scudder cousins whose biographies have been shared in our prior publications. Since this special edition of the Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal introduces a large branch of the Scudder family through a female line of descent, not given previously in publications of the Scudder Association Foundation, we offer this explanatory historical overview and highlight the titles of the articles in bold type with their links to the articles. Members of the Stewart and Udall families left a wealth of biographical material in personal journals and personal histories, some written by their posterity to enable us to tell their stories from their point of view. This branch is another evidence, as shown in previous articles, that the Scudder family includes a diversity of religious and political persuasions but remarkable unity of purpose to serve others and to make the world better.


This Overview of persons discussed in this issue shows how
the Stewart and Udall Families of Utah and Arizona
relate to each other and to John
2 and Mary (King) Scudder of New York.

 The immediate matriarch of the 4-generation pioneering Udall family discussed in this issue, was Eliza Luella (Ella) Stewart, the daughter of Levi Stewart, founder of Kanab, Utah. Ella was a 4th great granddaughter of John2 and Mary (King) Scudder and a great-great granddaughter of Dr. John1 and Elizabeth (Alburtus) Stewart. Ella married David2 King Udall, Sr. on 1 February 1875.


Eliza Luella Stewart Udall - Ella

Eliza Luella Stewart Udall (Ella)

 Ella’s father had been called by Brigham Young in 1870 to lead a group of Latter-day Saint[4] pioneers to establish the town of Kanab, Utah, near Utah’s southern border with Arizona. Six weeks after their marriage, David K. and Ella (Stewart) Udall were shocked to receive a letter from their church authorities in Salt Lake calling David on a two-year mission to England, the land where his parents were born. In 1880, three years after his return from his mission to England in 1877, David K. was called again by their church leaders to move from Utah to the eastern edge of Arizona to lead a pioneering effort to establish a new settlement at St. Johns, Arizona and to be its first bishop. The rest is history—literallyif one considers the impact of David and Ella’s family’s service to country, church, community, and especially their grandsons’ extraordinary efforts to preserve the earth’s environment for all future generations of humanity. The work of Ella’s grandsons, Stewart L. Udall and Morris K. Udall, was so significant that the United States government founded the Udall Foundation as an Executive Branch office of the U. S. government, named to honor the two Udall brothers, with the purpose and motto to foster Scholarship and Excellence in National Environmental Policy. The United States president appoints the foundation’s Board of Trustees with the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate.[5] Not many people have an office of the U.S. executive branch named for them so one might appropriately be curious about the story of how this came to be. His heritage played a major role. This diagram of the three generations in the Stewart family prior to Stewart L. Udall shows his strong predecessors on whose shoulders he stood. The same is true of his Udall lineage.


Levi Stewart, b. 1812, Utah Pioneer arrived 1848, founder of Kanab, UT

Eliza Luella Stewart Udall, b. 1855, Arizona’s first female telegraph operator,
a founder of St Johns, Arizona and a lot more

Levi Stewart Udall, b. 1891, Chief Justice of the Arizona Supreme Court

Stewart Lee Udall, b. 1920, U. S. Congressman and Secretary of the Interior

In this branch of the Scudder family surnamed Stewart, the first Stewart generation was Dr. John1 Stewart and his wife, Elizabeth3 Alburtus Stewart, a granddaughter of John2 Scudder. Dr. John1 and Elizabeth Stewart  migrated from New York to New Jersey, to Delaware. Their son Samuel2 Stewart, of the second generation, moved to the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia in the early 1740s and then to Rowan County, North Carolina within a decade. Son Joseph Stewart, of the third generation of Stewarts, (6th generation Scudder), began his migration west by about 1780 into areas that became Tennessee, finally settling in Overton County, Tennessee. His son William4 Stewart moved to the frontier in Illinois and Iowa. William4’s son Levi5 Stewart was born in Edwardsville, Illinois, returned to Overton county, Tennessee, moved to the frontier of Illinois at Vandalia, then to Missouri to join the Latter-day Saints. Levi and his people were driven from Missouri to Illinois by mobs and an extermination order by the Missouri governor.[6] In an extraordinary display of resilience, in about seven years they turned a swamp land on a bend of the Mississippi River into the second largest city in Illinois, called Nauvoo. Levi and his people were again driven from their homes. Levi’s 1200-mile trek from Illinois took from 1846–1848 through Iowa, Nebraska and Wyoming on his way westward, over the Rocky Mountains to Utah. These five generations of Stewarts can be documented in 11 states over a period of about 170 years, frequently starting from scratch.

All these persons were Scudder descendants, descended from the first 3-generations diagrammed at the beginning of this article. Histories of John2 and Mary Scudder and their posterity suggest that many of them met these criteria to be called pioneers and that John2 and Mary’s pioneering traits seem to have been passed down for at least nine generations in this western branch of the Scudder family. Was it this pioneering characteristic in John2 Scudder’s family that gave succeeding generations their courage and confidence to move to new frontiers to settle in wildernesses, or the innovative talents to tackle big or new projects with a focus to make improvements in their communities? Or even a passion to work tirelessly on several fronts at once to make the world a better place such as their descendants in the Stewart and Udall families of Utah and Arizona? These people too were faith-driven and service-oriented like many of their American Scudder cousins whose biographies have been shared in our prior publications.


Notable Scudder Descendants: Stewarts and Udalls of the Great American West


Original Painting of Stewart Udall

Official painting of former Interior Secretary Stewart Udall[7]


While not surnamed Scudder, this issue has several articles to document important contributions by these Scudder descendants who were of the Arizona Udall political family, such as U. S. Representative and Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall and his father, Chief Justice Levi Stewart Udall of the Supreme Court of Arizona. As a U.S. congressman and Secretary of the Interior in the 1960s, and a tireless “Advocate for Planet Earth,” conservationist Stewart L. Udall did much to protect the Earth and some of America’s greatest scenic wonders. Stewart Udall was a 7th great-grandson of John2 and Mary (King) Scudder.

This Stewart/Udall family also strongly exhibits the Scudder tradition and traits of “service to others,” although, due to their descent through a female line, their Scudder ancestry is not widely known. Pioneers, public servants or preachers describes a number of those in generations between John2 and Mary Scudder and Stewart L. Udall, with some individuals being all three.

That the surname of these Scudder descendants was Stewart seems appropriate for the passion that Stewart Lee Udall and his brother, U.S. Representative Morris King Udall, exhibited to be stewards of the earth. The story of their family’s heritage in the western desert exhibits why they did not take the resources of the earth for granted.


Stewart L Udall - 1960s

Stewart L. Udall, 1960s[8]


The articles include how Stewart L. Udall and his father, Justice Levi Stewart Udall, and Stewart’s brother, U.S. Representative Morris K. Udall, all also contributed to righting several wrongs on behalf of Native Americans, as well as many other important civic achievements. Stewart Udall’s son, Tom Udall of New Mexico, and Morris’s son, Mark Udall of Colorado, also served as U.S. Senators until recently.

As U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Stewart Udall, a great-grandson of Kanab town founder Levi Stewart, led conservation efforts to protect the environment and created some treasured national parks during his years as Secretary of the Interior in order to preserve some of the greatest scenic wonders in America for future generations. Three articles tell his story. Don’t miss his compelling letter to his grandchildren reprinted here.

During their Congressional careers, Stewart’s and Mo’s sons, Senators Tom Udall and Mark Udall, both continued to work on environmental issues as had their fathers. This family’s judicial and political efforts to secure rights for Native Americans came from a family culture of befriending their indigenous neighbors. Louise (Lee) Udall, mother of congressmen Stewart L. and Morris K. Udall, (Mo), made a notable contribution to history when she published the biography of her close friend Helen Sekaquaptewa, of the Hopi tribe, in Me and Mine, The Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa.[9] Both Stewart and Mo also made considerable contributions to advance rights of African Americans as recounted in these articles in this Summer/Fall 2021 issue of Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal about Stewart Lee Udall:


Table of Contents, Summer/Fall 2021

 Stewart Lee Udall’s Life Sketch, Part I
by Susan Sherwood Arnett

Stewart Lee Udall’s Life Sketch, Part II
by Susan Sherwood Arnett

 Stewart Lee Udall—A Letter to My Grandchildren 
contributed by Susan Sherwood Arnett


The principle of stewardship was ingrained in the Stewarts and Udalls for it was integral in their religious heritage, “Thou shalt be diligent in preserving what thou hast, that thou mayest be a wise steward; for it is the free gift of the Lord thy God, and thou art his steward.”[10] The Udall brothers’ passion to preserve the environment and scenic wonders and vital resources seems an outgrowth of their upbringing. The environmental, political and social issues to which the Udall brothers and two of their sons have dedicated decades of their lives remain front page news today as current leaders continue to wrestle with how to stretch our resources to meet demand.[11]


The Stewarts’ and Udalls’ Scudder Ancestry begins with
2 And Mary Scudder from Long Island, New York


The Seventeenth century pioneering ancestors of the Stewart family and its Udall branch included Levi Stewart’s 4th great-grandparents, John2 Scudder I and Mary2 (King) Scudder of Newtown, Long Island. Two articles in this issue focus on two of the earliest New York pioneer ancestors of Levi Stewart and Stewart L. Udall that are highlighted in the diagram at the beginning of this article.


John and Mary King Scudder, Religious Nonconformists and Long Island Pioneers
by Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian


This article only adds a few highlights to their journal history begun in the Spring 2021 issue because there is a more detailed treatment up to 1664 available in this author’s recent narrative cultural history, From Conscience to Liberty: Diverse Long Island Families in a Crucible that Gave Rise to Religious Liberty, 1526–1664.[12] Taken from the historical records and fully footnoted, this several hundred page work puts the Scudder family, and associated families, in their historical and social and religious contexts as well as their immediate and extended family contexts. Future volumes are in the works that continue the history to 1800.


Elizabeth3 (Scudder) Alburtus, Daughter of John2 and Mary2 (King) Scudder

Was the First Scudder to Marry into A Dutch New Netherland Family
And Was the First Scudder to Move to New Jersey

Ancestress of Her Pioneering Descendants in the Stewart and Udall Families
by Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian

 Elizabeth3 (Scudder) Alburtus, John2 and Mary2 Scudder’s daughter, was the first Scudder to move from New York to New Jersey. She was also the first Scudder in America to marry into a “Dutch” New Netherland family, the first of many such marriage alliances for centuries to follow between Scudders of New York and New Jersey who married posterity of early New Netherland families.[13] Elizabeth3 (Scudder) Alburtus was a forty-three-year-old widow[14] when she went to New Jersey in 1693, having accepted a marriage proposal from William1 Lawrence, Sr. of Middletown, Monmouth, N. J. Lawrence was a wealthy widower with eight children who had previously lived at Newtown, Long Island for a few years when Elizabeth was a young teenager. He left Newtown in 1666 for New Jersey to become one of the earliest pioneers on the ground to settle Middletown, under the Monmouth Patent.[15]

 Because the Alburtus children of Elizabeth3 (Scudder) (Alburtus) Lawrence did not have the Scudder surname, many today have not known of this interesting pioneering branch of the Scudder family that shares the Scudder heritage and its traits, as well as its genes. Her youngest daughter, Mehitable3, moved with her to Middletown and later married James2 Lawrence, the son of William Lawrence.[16]  Elizabeth (Scudder) Alburtus’s children were John3, Samuel3, Elizabeth3 and Mehitable3 Alburtus. No issue by her marriage to Lawrence.[17] The children of Elizabeth3 (Scudder) Alburtus, including those of Elizabeth3 Alburtus (John2, Pietro1) and Dr. John1 Stewart should be recognized as the grandchildren of John2 and Mary2 (King) Scudder. This is the line of the Stewarts and Udalls of Utah and Arizona.

 In 1697, Elizabeth4 (Alburtus) Stewart and her husband Dr. John1 Stewart and children were the next Scudders to move to New Jersey when they followed her mother, Elizabeth3 (Scudder) (Alburtus) Lawrence, to New Jersey and settled at nearby Shrewsbury, Monmouth County.[18] Elizabeth3 (Scudder) (Alburtus) Lawrence’s son John3 (John2, Pietro1) later followed to New Jersey and settled at Mansfield, Burlington,[19] while her son Samuel3 Alburtus remained on the Alburtus family property at Newtown, Long Island. While some sources do not mention her son William3, minute references near Mansfield, N.J. suggest that he was in the area near his brother John3.

 While Elizabeth3 (Alburtus) Stewart is a 4th generation Scudder in America, she is designated “3” where she belongs in the Alburtus family constellation.[20] Dr. John and Elizabeth (Alburtus) Stewart went from New Jersey to Sussex County, Delaware at the end of 1700 where Stewart died by January 1704/1705 when his will was proved.[21] He left Elizabeth3 a young widow with all of her children then underage. As was the custom of the time, for family survival, she soon remarried to Thomas Davock. Their story is to be continued in a future issue.

Stewart L. Udall’s Prior Three-generation Heritage

Other articles in this issue introduce the three generations prior to Stewart L. Udall who were the remarkable men and women that shaped him, and thousands of other Scudder descendants of the Stewart and Udall families, beginning with Udall’s great-grandfather, Levi Stewart.

 A Life History of Levi Stewart
compiled by Susan Sherwood Arnett

Secretary Stewart Lee Udall’s great-grandfather, Levi Stewart, was born in 1812. It was he for whom Stewart L. Udall and his father, Levi Stewart Udall, were named. Levi Stewart’s family were pioneers to Utah and Arizona after having also pioneered on the frontiers of Tennessee, Illinois, Missouri and back again to Illinois before making the 1200-mile pioneer trek from Nauvoo, Illinois to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, Utah Territory.[22]

Their long trek was forced due to religious persecution and commenced in the freezing temperatures of February of 1846. They left their lovely homes and gardens and sacred temple in Nauvoo, Illinois and with faith drove their wagons across the frozen Mississippi River, entrusting their lives to their God.

“Crossing the Mississippi on the Ice,” by C. C. A. Christensen[23]


Jerry Klein in the New York Times describes what they left behind:

At the time of the exodus, Nauvoo had 11,000 people. It ranked with Chicago in size, but it was so advanced that most towns its size were crude and primitive by comparison. While Nauvoo (the name means ’Beautiful Place’ in Hebrew) had 300 brick homes among its 2, 200 residences, plus 20 schools, a university, five potteries, four bakeries and three newspapers, Abraham Lincoln was growing up in New Salem, barely 100 miles to the east, in a frontier log cabin community where he read by the light of wood chips thrown on an open fire.[24]

All this was accomplished in only seven years. Nauvoo also had an imposing temple on a hill and productive farms to sustain the people. But when the Saints were forced to leave, it was an arduous journey through the sleet and snow and mud of Iowa to Winter Quarters, Nebraska where they encamped to regroup and to construct a way station for thousands that would follow. When the first company of pioneers was ready to press on to the Rocky Mountains, Levi was asked to stay at Winter Quarters to oversee the commissary for those who were not in the advance companies of 1847 to prepare the barren Salt Lake Valley for the thousands who would follow. In 1848, Levi’s family was able to finish the trek through the wild and inhospitable lands of Nebraska and Wyoming into the Salt Lake Valley, Utah to start anew.[25] Levi pioneered in new frontier settlements in at least six locations within eleven years, most times starting from scratch.

In another pioneering expedition in 1870, Levi Stewart was called on a mission to leave his home, farm and mill in Millcreek, Utah in Salt Lake County to serve as the leader to establish a town at Kanab, Utah in an unsettled area over three hundred miles south. There, he served as Kanab’s first bishop.


Levi Stewart Memorial Statue

Pamphlet proposing the Levi Stewart Memorial in Kanab[26]


Surrounded by some of the great scenic wonders of the American West, such as nearby Zion National Park, the Stewart family’s southern Utah agricultural enterprises included constructing a dairy on the Kaibab Plateau and running their cattle near the North Rim of the Grand Canyon. In his short eight years in Kanab, Levi Stewart had commenced other business interests from scratch including a store and a sawmill for the purpose of milling lumber for the St. George Temple under construction. The Stewart family in Kanab was responsible for operating the recently installed telegraph in their community after the wires were installed.[27] His daughter, and Stewart L. Udall’s grandmother, Eliza Luella (Stewart) Udall is credited with being the first female telegraph operator in Arizona, at the fort at Pipe Springs, where her picture hangs on the wall.[28]


Pipe Springs National Momument

Pipe Springs National Monument[29]

This issue also focuses on the women with brief life sketches for Ella and for several extraordinary pioneer women in Ella’s life: her mother Margery (Wilkerson) Stewart and her two stepmothers, Melinda (Howard) Stewart and Artemacy (Wilkerson) Stewart.

The Power of Example Preserved in Family Histories Inspires

Numerous family histories written by his descendants demonstrate how Levi Stewart’s posterity held him and his wives in very high esteem for their examples of courage, devotion to God and sacrifices for God and for others and their service to the less fortunate, in much the same way that the descendants of Dr. John and Harriet (Waterbury) Scudder, missionaries to India from 1819–1854, hold them in high regard. These families were contemporaries timewise but of different religious denominations and localities, but they did have a lot of characteristics in common and weathered similar challenges. These Stewart and Udall histories and examples have been a glue that has kept succeeding generations emotionally attached and inspired, creating a remarkable bond among their posterity across branches of the now numerous family that continues to the present.

Three Noble Latter-day Saint Utah Pioneer “Foremothers” of Distinction 

Melinda Howard Stewart

Margery Wilkerson Stewart

Artemacy Wilkerson Stewart

compiled by Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian


Secretary Stewart L. Udall’s grandparents, David K. and Ella Stewart Udall, and their children, were a strong influence in his life.

David King Udall and Ella Stewart Udall, A Love Story Intertwined with
Their Resolve to Seek First the Kingdom of God.” 

by Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian

The Stewarts and Their Assistance to John Wesley Powell’s Second Expedition
to Measure, Map and Explore Southern Utah and Arizona

by Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian

Levi Stewart Memorial Park and Other Kanab, Utah Monuments 
by Margery Boyden, Scudder Association Foundation Historian

Levi Stewart family Memorial[30]

Levi Stewart Memorial Park, Kanab, Utah


(John and Mary King Scudder, Religious Nonconformists and Long Island Pioneers


[1] Adriaen Block’s early map of Niew Nederlandt, made between 1611–1614,, Public domain.

[2] Margery Boyden and Clive Connor, “John Scudder, Son of Thomas Scudder (T) of Horton Kirby, Kent and Salem, Mass.: Married Mary King and They Were among Earliest Settlers of Southold, Huntington and Newtown, Long Island,” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 3, no. 2, (Spring 2021), .

[3] New Oxford American Dictionary.

[4] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the full and correct name of the Church. Members of this church may be referred to as Latter-day Saints which is preferred over the nickname Mormon, it not being Mormon’s church. That nickname was taken from the Book of Mormon, believed by this religion’s adherents to be modern day scripture, first published in 1830.

[5] Morris K. Udall and Stewart L. Udall Foundation, Executive Branch office of the United States Government,

  • It offers annual scholarships and fellowships to outstanding students intending a career related to natural environment. Those chosen are known as a Udall Scholar.
  • The office also offers annual scholarships and internships to outstanding Native American and Alaska Native college student.
  • Parks in Focus, takes young people into national and state parks to “expose them to the grandeur of the nation’s natural resources and instill a sustainable appreciation for the environment.
  • Hosts an annual conference or discussion of contemporary environmental or Native American issues.
  • A program for environmental policy research and a program for environmental conflict resolution at the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy at the University of Arizona.
  • The U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution which provides mediation and other services.
  • The Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management and Policy (NNI),” which focuses on leadership education for tribal leaders and on policy research.” The Morris K. Udall Foundation and the University of Arizona founded NNI, which is an outgrowth of the research programs of the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development.

[6] The Extermination Order was issued 27 October 1838 by Governor Lilburn W. Boggs of Missouri. Rescinded by Governor Christopher S. Bond, 25 July 1976,

[7] Closeup of official painting of former Interior Secretary Stewart Udall, photograph by Tami Heilemann, Interior Staff,

[8] Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of the Interior, 1961–1969, Official Administrative photograph,

[9] Louise Udall, Me and Mine, The Life Story of Helen Sekaquaptewa, as told to Louise Udall, (Tucson & London, The University of Arizona Press, 1969, 10th printing 1993).

[10] Doctrine and Covenants, 13:27, also considered modern day scripture by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; first edition was published in 1835.

[11] Kyle Dunphey “On the river with Mitt Romney and Michael Bennet: Politicians, industry heads talk drought, climate change in the West,” Deseret News, Sep 18, 2021, This river trip was to discuss the future of the Colorado River and how to superintend its resources in the face of extreme drought to be able to serve the 40 million people who depend on it, including a large amount of agriculture vital to our nation’s food supply. Of interest is that Mitt Romney is also a Scudder, an 8th great-grandson of Elizabeth Scudder (E) through his Pratt line to Elizabeth Scudder and her husband Samuel Lathrop. See “Elizabeth Scudder, Wife of Samuel Lathrop (Lothrop) Was the Immigrant Ancestress of These Remarkable Descendants,” Scudder Family Historical & Biographical Journal, Scudder Association Foundation, volume 2, no. 2 (Fall 2021),

[12] Margery Boyden, From Conscience to Liberty: Diverse Long Island Families in a Crucible that Gave Rise to Religious Liberty, v. 1, Parts A and B, (Printed by the author, October 2020),  See Index and Chapter Outline for specfic page numbers.

[13] Future articles will discuss some of these in other branches of the Scudder family.

[14] John E. Stillwell, “Lawrence of Monmouth County,” Historical and Genealogical Miscellany, Early Settlers of New Jersey and Their Descendants, v. 3, (New York: 1914), 396. Chapter is from pages 393–427 and includes a number of generations.

[15] Stillwell, v. 3, 393–396.

[16] Stillwell, 396.

[17] Charles Carroll Gardner, “Alburtis, Burtis” in Joseph R. Klett, Genealogies of New Jersey Families, A–Z, v. 1, 116–117.

[18] Stillwell, 396.

[19] “Alburtis, Burtis” in Joseph R. Klett, 116–117. Stillwell, see endnote 19, gives an extra son William on page 396 but without a source.

[20] Klett, 116.

[21] Will of [Dr.] John Stewart, Sussex County Wills, Book A, A:50–52, modern copy. From copy of pg 4545, Sussex County, Probate, Delaware Public Archives, Hall of Records, Dover, Delaware, 19901. Copy in possession of the author.

[23] C. C. A. Christensen, “Crossing the Mississippi on the Ice,” painted about 1878, Museum of Art, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT,

[24] Jerry Klein, Nauvoo, the Town the Mormons Left,The New York Times, August 19, 1979, Section XX, Page 1,

[25] “Levi Stewart,” Pioneer Database, 1847–1868, of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Sources states he was in the Brigham Young Company, lists age 36 and family members: Melinda Howard Stewart, 31; Elizabeth Jane Stewart, 14; Joseph Abram Stewart, 10; John Riley Stewart, 7; Louisa Stewart, 3 and Levi Howard Stewart, infant. Source also lists that he made the trek from Utah to Council Bluffs, Iowa to bring freight to Utah, 1853 and 1857, and that he was part of the rescue mission in 1856 to starving, stranded pioneers in early winter conditions in Wyoming.

[26] Levi Stewart Monument, Kanab, Utah, proposal pamphlet. See “Life History of Levi Stewart” article for photos after completion.

[27] Leonard J. Arrington, “The Deseret Telegraph, a Church-owned Public Utility,” The Journal of Economic History, volume 11, no. 2, (Spring) 1951), 117–139.

[28] Adonis Findlay Robinson, comp. and ed., History of Kane County, (Salt Lake City: Utah Printing Company, 1970 by Kane County Daughters of the Utah Pioneers, 1970), 42.

[29] Donald W. Dickensheets, photographer, Pipe Spring National Monument, Wikimedia Commons, from Historic American Buildings Survey, 18 May 1940,,_from_east,_1940.jpg. Public domain.

[30] Photo in possession of the author from the unveiling ceremony of the Levi Stewart Statue, Kanab, Utah, June 2001.